[ Accueil ][Proceedings] [ Français ]


Hybrid Book: A New Perspective in the Education

and the Leisure for the Blind.


Paolo GRAZIANI, IROE-CNR (Italy);Andras ARATO Terez VASPORI, LSTR (Hungary)

Plan:

[ Detailed Abstract ]

[ Full Paper ]


Detailed Abstract

Introduction

The main purpose of the Digibook COP806 project (Digitized Speech Processing for Efficient Distribution of Texts) was the development and application of new forms of talking books for blind people. One of the most innovative aspects of this project is the so-called Hybrid Book technique, where structured ASCII text, in a modified HTML format, is synchronously stored on a CD-ROM with compressed human speech. The HTML source and the human speech records are integrated by means of a pre-compiler.

This technique combines the high quality of digital speech recording with the navigation possibilities of hypertext. Through use of a special browser the user can access the two parallel versions of a hybrid book.

Both the authoring system and the browser were developed in Hungary by the LSTR and utilized also by other members of the consortium to produce some samples of hybrid books in different languages. LSTR produced two hybrid books in Hungarian and one in English, while CNR-IROE produced one in Italian, with the cooperation of the Talking Book Service of the Italian Blind Union (UIC).

Both Hungarian and Italian Blind Unions expressed interest in this development and they are willing to produce this new form of talking books in the future.

The main aspects of the hybrid book

Due to the unusual structure of the hybrid book, focus was placed on books that could be read continuously (e.g. fiction, course books and some technical books), but books of a special nature (e.g. dictionaries, encyclopedias, phone directories etc.) were not explored.

The book consists of the title page (title author/s, publisher, date, etc.), the motto, recommendations, or similar; the preface/s; the table of contents; the body of the book; the appendix; the epilogue; the index, etc.;

The body of books is split into chapters, divisions and subdivisions, etc. It has a tree-like structure with a maximum depth of six levels. The tree defines the default tour (or path) in the book. Picture descriptions and footnotes also belong to this part. It also contains hyper links that implement cross-references. The latter allows one to perform a walk that differs from the default tour.

As mentioned above, the hybrid book refers to the text and its performance is in an audio file. The structure of the hybrid book is described in the structured electronic text by DTD elements. Anchors are placed in the text for linking the digitized speech files to the corresponding part in the text. In that way, the structured text governs the synchronization between the text and the audio. Each audio file contains one paragraph; titles, headings etc. are also regarded as paragraphs.

Hybrid books in education

Hybrid books can provide the advantages of both traditional cassette reading and electronic text reading by synthesizer. They can serve for leisure reading as well as study materials. One can navigate in the text very quickly and accurately and a high quality, clear voice can be enjoyable even when listening to different kinds of study materials.

In many cases when hearing either a foreign or an unknown word it is necessary to check the spelling of the words by using the speech synthesizer or the braille line, if there is also a braille display connected to the PC.

One of the main goals of the hybrid book techniques is to shorten the gap between the sighted students and visually impaired ones. The "sighted page number" item serves as an aid in this case. During navigation the students can quickly go to the proper sighted page number of the course book in the classroom.

The Learn-ed project's main goal was to integrate disabled students into remote higher education. The hybrid book techniques were considered in the Learn-ed project as the off-line teaching material from the on-line lecture. Testing of this technique is planned for future studies.

The Learn-ed project was coordinated by Nick Hine of the University of Dundee. The acronym stands for Learning and Educational Access using Remote Networks - Enabling the Disabled. In addition to the Hungarian group, Slovakia and Austria also took part in the Learn-ed Copernicus project.

The common link between the Learn-ed and Digibook projects was their use of the HTML standard for inputting information, although Digibook uses a pre-compiling process as a way to optimize the CD-ROM search time. This is necessary for extra high speed of the navigation in the hybrid book for the blind users.

Conclusions

The structured digital talking book can be considered the most innovative aspect of the Digibook project. Its potential utility became clear during the evaluation with blind subjects.

The interest of organizations of blind people, such as the Italian and Hungarian Blind Unions, confirms this conclusion.

Some open problems remain. The first issues deals with the practical use by a blind person who is not a regular computer user. A simplified CD player, provided with commands to activate the different functions of the navigation program, seems to be the best approach. This can be realized on a standard platform or on a dedicated device.

The automatic segmentation of the speech file and creation of a special book reader will be studied in the framework of a joint project between MTA (the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) and CNR (the Italian National Research Council), which LSTR and IROE are involved in over the next three years.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Copernicus and Tide offices of the EU who gave us the possibility of creating a new application for visually impaired people through the DIGIBOOK project. Also, we extend our thanks to the Hungarian National Technical Development Office (OMFB) for its support, which allows us to continue the work, and for all the support from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Italian National Research Council.

References

A. Arató, M. Barkaszi, L. Budai and T. Vaspöri, "Hybrid Books for the Blind - A new form of Talking Books", 5th International Conference, ICCHP'96, 1996, Linz, Austria, R. Oldenbourg Wien München, 1, pp. 237-248.

"User Requirements for the Next Generation of Talking Books", (Draft document for consultation), By the European Blind Union (EBU) Expert Group on Next Generation Talking Books (EBU-TBEG)

J. Engelen et ali: "COPERNICUS NR 806 Final report", Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, April 1997.

[ Hybrid Book ] [Proceedings]


Full Paper

Table of Contents:

  1. [ Introduction ]
  2. [ Requirements of blind readers ]
  3. [ Structure of the hybrid book ]
  4. [ Creation of hybrid books in Hungary and Italy ]
  5. [ The hybrid book on CD ROM ]
  6. [ Evaluation of hybrid books ]
  7. [ Hybrid books in education ]
  8. [ Conclusions ]
  9. [ Acknowledgements ]
  10. [ References ]

1.Introduction

The traditional books utilized by blind people are those embossed on paper, according to the Braille method, or the so-called "talking books", recorded on cassettes with human voice. Both these forms of special books maintain their value today, even though they present some difficulties and limitations of use, especially in relation to the new needs of an integrated education.

Informatics and Telematics offer new possibilities of access to written information. The transitory Braille display and the synthetic voice allow access to electronic texts at both local or remote levels. The digital recording of human speech gives way to the development of new forms of talking books, distributed on compact disks, which are more reliable and accessible than cassettes.

The main purpose of the Digibook COP806 project (Digitized Speech Processing for Efficient Distribution of Texts) was the development and application of new forms of electronic and talking books for blind people. One of the most innovative aspects of this project is the so-called Hybrid Book technique, where structured ASCII text, in a modified HTML format, is synchronously stored on a CD-ROM with compressed human speech. The HTML source and the human speech records are integrated by means of a pre-compiler.

This technique combines the high quality of digital speech recording with the navigation possibilities of a hypertext. By means of a special browser, the user can access the two parallel versions of a hybrid book. It is possible in any moment to switch from the listening to the recorded voice of the narrator to the reading of the corresponding text, with the support of a speech synthesizer or a Braille display, and vice-versa. This allows, for example, to search for any string of characters in the text and to jump to the corresponding entry point in the talking book, or to go to the text to verify the spelling of a certain word heard in the record.

Both the authoring system and the browser were developed in Hungary by the LSTR and utilized by other members of the consortium in order to produce some samples of hybrid books in different languages. LSTR produced two hybrid books in Hungarian and one in English, while CNR-IROE produced one in Italian, with the cooperation of the Talking Book Service of the Italian Blind Union (UIC).

Both the Hungarian and Italian Blind Unions expressed interest in this development and they are willing to produce this new form of talking books in the future.

[ contents ] [ Hybrid Book ] [Proceedings]


2.Requirements of blind readers

A survey among blind computer users on their requirements of book reading preceeded the development of hybrid book. In Hungary 20 persons responded to a questionnaire, where one of the questions was:

"Assume that you have the long ASCII text at home. The same talking book on cassette is available in the library of the Association. Do you prefer reading it with synthesizer or do you go to the library to borrow the cassettes?"

For leisure reading, most people prefer traditional talking books to reading by speech synthesizer, even if they have to go to the library to borrow the materials. If the document has to be used for study purposes, all would choose the synthesizer and reading program instead of cassettes.

4 university students and 2 secondary school students were among those asked. The blind computer users made several suggestions for a book reading software, some of which are mentioned here:

- The reading system has to be easy to learn and handle, and be fast;

- It should be easy to look through the table of contents;

- It should be easy to look through the structure of the document;

- It should allow one to fast forward and rewind between paragraphs, sub-divisions, divisions, and chapters;

- It should be easy to read the chosen part of the screen;

- It should be easy to change the tempo of reading;

- It should allow the user to choose words for spelling;

- It should allow one to skip to pages according to page numbers;

- It should allow one to search for strings in documents;

- One should be able to stop and start reading quickly;

- One should be able to leave reading very simply;

- Book markers are needed.

The users' requirements were taken into account in the development of the hybrid book browser.

[ contents ] [ Hybrid Book ] [Proceedings]


3.Structure of the hybrid book

For the sake of simplicity, and because large quantities of HTML material were available, we decided to use the slightly modified HTML DTD for structured electronic text book and hybrid book purposes. Many HTML features are not used by the hybrid book, but, on the other hand there are several requirements that cannot be satisfied by the standard HTML (e.g. main parts of the book).

Due to the unusual structure of the hybrid book, the focus was placed on books that could be read continuously (e.g. fiction, course books and some technical books), but books of special nature (e.g. dictionaries, encyclopedias, phone directories etc.) were not examined.

The main parts of the hybrid book are:

- title page (title, author/s, publisher, date, etc.);

- motto, recommendation, or similar;

- preface(s);

- table of contents;

- book itself -- the body of the book;

- appendix;

- epilogue;

- index, etc.;

The body of books is split into chapters, divisions and subdivisions, etc. It has a tree-like structure with a maximum depth of six levels. The tree defines the default tour (or path) in the book. Picture descriptions and footnotes also belong to this part. Also included are hyper links which implement the cross-references. The latter allows one to perform a walk differing from the default tour.

As mentioned above, the hybrid book refers to the text and its performance is in an audio file. The structure of the hybrid book is described in the structured electronic text by DTD elements. Anchors are placed in the text for linking the digitized speech files to the corresponding part in the text. For that reason, the structured text governs the synchronization between the text and the audio. Each audio file contains one paragraph. Titles, headings etc. are also regarded as paragraphs.

[ contents ] [ Hybrid Book ] [Proceedings]


4.Creation of hybrid books in Hungary and Italy

The basic principal of the hybrid book and a preliminary version of the browser were presented at ICCHP in 1996. In Hungary, for the structured electronic text books and hybrid books, 6 RTF formats, mainly school books (history, literature and technical) and fiction were selected to be converted to DIGIBOOK format (which is HTML-like). Two of the books were prepared as hybrid books, which meant synchronization of audio files with the paragraphs of the structured text file. One English paper (description of the hybrid book) was also created. Currently, the audio file is compressed by the ADPCM compression method.

The following components are the sources of a hybrid book:

- A text file containing both the "text" and the structure of the book in HTML-like notation,

- a large number of .wav files containing the digitized voice to the paragraphs.

A pre-processor developed in Budapest prepares the input files for the hybrid book reader from these sources. On the one hand, it separates the book structure from the book text and stores it with other information necessary for navigation in a binary file; the text of the book (without the HTML markups) is stored in a plain text file. On the other hand, it merges the voice files into one large file. Pointers in the binary file point to parts of text and audio files too. After pre-processing all of the books, the browser with the menu files and the files of the books are written on CD ROM.

In Italy the chosen text for Hybrid book is a tourist guide of Rome commercially available in printed form. The digital audio record of this book was created by the Talking Book Service of the Italian Blind Union, while the text file was obtained by means of a scanner and a OCR program from the printed version. This text is particularly suitable for emphasizing the possibility of navigation and random access to any part of the text. A tourist guide can be read sequentially like a literature text but also requires that a specific piece of information can be easily found, like in a dictionary. The hybrid book allows the reader to access the text following both these approaches, so that the digital talking version of the tourist guide can be used by the blind reader in a more effective way, as a sighted person can do with the printed version.

The table of contents of the book was reproduced in the form of a tree structure to allow the reader to navigate inside the text and choose the title of a specific piece of information with accuracy. For example, the two tours of Rome proposed by this guide are organized as trees with three or four successive branchings from the title of the itinerary and the reading of the text with human voice.

Furthermore, the text was divided into short paragraphs, each of them marked with the specific HTML code, and correspondingly, the audio file was divided in very short audio clips (about 15-20 seconds each). This fine structure allows the reader to define bookmarks or to search for strings in a nearly random way. The text organized as an HTML file as well as over 300 audio clips were compiled with the program developed by LSTR, and the hybrid book was produced.

[ contents ] [ Hybrid Book ] [Proceedings]


5.The hybrid book on CD ROM

The CD ROM was organized as follows: a directory Book containing the 3 files of the compiled hybrid book (Roma.hba, Roma.hbt, Roma.hbs); a directory Digibook, with the subdirectory Reader containing all files related to the navigation program; the file Menu.mnu contains the Italian version of all strings and messages displayed on the screen by the program; 3 files, Menu.ita, Menu.eng and Menu.hun, contain the versions of these messages in Italian, English and Hungarian respectively; to change the language of presentation, it is sufficient to copy one of these files with the name Menu.mnu; in the root of the disk, a Leggimi.txt (Readme.txt) file contains a short introduction to the use of the hybrid book and its navigation program.

[ contents ] [ Hybrid Book ] [Proceedings]


6.Evaluation of hybrid books

LSTR and IROE organized and performed an evaluation of the hybrid books produced, on the basis of a common method, based on a test and a questionnaire, by involving several blind subjects.

In particular, LSTR utilized 12 subjects, divided into 4 groups. They were given an introduction and some time to use the books.

Instead, CNR organized a non-assisted evaluation: a package was created and sent to 11 subjects; they had to install the special browser on their computer at home by using an automatic procedure stored on the same CD-ROM containing the hybrid book.

Thanks to the structure of the browser developed by LSTR, by writing the part depending on the language in a separate file, this program was easily adapted to the Italian language. An additional adaptation was necessary to use this browser in combination with a general purpose screen reader for DOS; it consists of a small resident program which intercepts characters and commands sent by the browser to the Hungarian text to speech connected via a virtual serial port. This adaptation allows a re-direction of these messages to a dedicated field at the bottom of the screen, where they can be monitored by a screen reader.

Although conducted on different texts and languages, this evaluation emphasized the paramount importance of the development of this new form of talking book. Possibilities opened by this new approach resulted clear to both Hungarian and Italian subjects. They generally appreciated the quality of the digital human voice and the access by means of menus. Subjects who were able to use and to understand all functions also appreciated the change of speed of human voice, the use of bookmarks, and the access and navigation according to different criteria (chapters, bookmarks, pages). Some subjects observed that the system would be suitable for applications in education.

By analyzing in detail the responses of subjects and by testing the different functions of the browser, it was possible to produce a list of suggested improvements.

[ contents ] [ Hybrid Book ] [Proceedings]


7.Hybrid books in education

Hybrid books can provide the advantages of both the traditional cassette reading and electronic text reading by synthesizer. They can serve for leisure reading as well as study purposes. One can navigate in the text very quickly and accurately, and a high quality, clear voice can be enjoyable even listening to different kinds of study materials.

In many cases, upon hearing either a foreign or an unknown word it is necessary to check the spelling of the words by using the speech synthesizer or the braille line, if there is also a braille display connected to the PC.

One of the main goals of the hybrid book techniques is to shorten the gap between the sighted students and visually impaired ones. The "sighted page number" item aims to help this purpose. During navigation the students can quickly go to the proper sighted page number of the course book in the classroom.

The Learn-ed project's main goal was to integrate disabled students in remote higher education. The hybrid book techniques was considered in the Learn-ed project as the off-line teaching material from the on-line lecture. Further testing on this is planned for future study.

The Learn-ed project was coordinated by Nick Hine of the University of Dundee. The acronym stands for Learning and Educational Access using Remote Networks - Enabling the Disabled. In addition to the Hungarian group, Slovakia and Austria also took part in the Learn-ed Copernicus project.

The common link betwen the Learn-ed and Digibook projects was the use of the HTML standard for inputting information, although Digibook uses a pre-compiling process in order to optimize CD-ROM search time. This is necessary due to the extra high speed of the navigation in the hybrid book for blind users.

[ contents ] [ Hybrid Book ] [Proceedings]


8.Conclusions

The structured digital talking book can be considered the most innovative aspect of the Digibook project. Its potential utility became clear during the evaluation with blind subjects.

The interest of organizations of blind people, such as the Italian and Hungarian Blind Unions, confirms this conclusion.

Some open problems remain. The first involves the practical use by a blind person who is not a regular computer user. A simplified CD player, provided with commands to activate the different functions of the navigation program, appears necessary. This can be realized on a standard platform or on a dedicated device.

Second, the version of browser used in accessing the hybrid book utilized on a standard personal computer by practiced users should be conceived in a more general form, for use in combination with any screen reader for DOS and any speech synthesizer or transitory Braille display.

Third, the handling of the material, i.e., text in HTML format and audio files, requires too much time. The study and development of automatic or semi-automatic procedures of segmentation of the audio file according to the structure of the HTML file is necessary in order to make this technique truly available for application to future digital talking books. Some of these aspects will be studied within the framework of a joint project between MTA (the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) and CNR (the Italian National Research Council), which LSTR and IROE are involved in over the next three years.

[ contents ] [ Hybrid Book ] [Proceedings]


9.Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Copernicus and Tide offices of the EU who gave us the possibility of creating a new application for visually impaired people through the DIGIBOOK project. Thanks are also extended to the Hungarian National Technical Development Office (OMFB) for its support, which allows us to continue the work, and for all the support from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Italian National Research Council.

[ contents ] [ Hybrid Book ] [Proceedings]


10.References

A. Arató, M. Barkaszi, L. Budai and T. Vaspöri, "Hybrid Books for the Blind - A new form of Talking Books", 5th International Conference, ICCHP'96, 1996, Linz, Austria, R. Oldenbourg Wien München, 1, pp. 237-248.

"User Requirements for the Next Generation of Talking Books", (Draft document for consultation), By the European Blind Union (EBU) Expert Group on Next Generation Talking Books (EBU-TBEG)

J. Engelen et ali: "COPERNICUS NR 806 Final report", Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, April 1997.


[ Accueil ] [Actes] [ English ]


Livre Hybride : Une nouvelle perspective pour l'éducation et les loisirs des non voyants


Paolo GRAZIANI, IROE-CNR (Italy);Andras ARATO Terez VASPORI, LSTR (Hungary)

Plan :

[ Résumé Détaillé ]


Résumé Détaillé

Introduction

L'objectif principal du projet DIGIBOOK COP806 (Traitement de la Parole Numérisée pour une Distribution Efficace des Textes) était la mise au point et l'application de nouvelles formes de livres parlants pour les aveugles. L'un des aspects les plus novateurs de ce projet est la technique dite du livre hybride, où du texte ASCII structuré en format HTML modifié est stocké sur CD-ROM et couplé avec de la parole humaine compressée. La source HTML et les enregistrements de parole humaine sont intégrés au moyen d'un pré-compilateur.

Cette technique combine l'excellente qualité de la parole numérisée et les possibilités de navigation de l'hypertexte. Grâce à un navigateur spécial, l'utilisateur peut accéder aux deux versions parallèles du livre hybride.

Le système d'écriture et le navigateur ont tous deux été développés en Hongrie par le LSTR, et ils ont également été utilisés par d'autres membres du consortium, afin de produire des échantillons de livres hybrides en différentes langues. Le LSTR a produit deux livres hybrides en hongrois et un en anglais ; le CNR-IROE en a produit un en italien, avec la coopération du Service du Livre Parlé de l'Union Italienne des Aveugles (UIC).

Les Unions des Aveugles hongroise et italienne ont manifesté de l'intérêt pour cette invention et sont disposées à produire cette nouvelle forme de livres hybrides dans l'avenir.

Les principales caractéristiques du livre hybride

En raison de la structure inhabituelle du livre hybride, on s'est intéressé principalement aux livres pouvant être lus de façon continue (par exemple les romans, les manuels et certains livres techniques). Le cas des livres de nature particulière (par exemple les dictionnaires, les encyclopédies, les annuaires téléphoniques etc.) n'a pas été étudié.

Le livre comprend la page de titre (titre, auteur(s), éditeur, date etc.), l'épigraphe, les recommandations et autres ; la ou les préfaces ; la table des matières ; le texte du livre ; l'appendice ; l'épilogue ; l'index, etc.

Le texte du livre est divisé en chapitres, divisions principales et subdivisions etc. Il a une structure hiérarchique ne dépassant pas six niveaux. La hiérarchie définit l'approche (ou chemin) par défaut du livre. Les descriptions d'images et les notes sont aussi comprises dans cette partie. Elle contient également des hyperliens fournissant des renvois. Ces derniers permettent un accès au livre différent de l'approche par défaut.

Comme nous l'indiquions ci-dessus, le livre hybride renvoie au texte, qui se présente sous la forme d'un fichier audio. La structure du livre hybride est décrite par des éléments DTD dans le texte électronique structuré. Des ancrages sont placés dans le texte pour lier les fichiers de parole numérisée à la partie du texte correspondante. De cette façon, le texte structuré dirige la synchronisation entre le texte et le son. Chaque fichier audio contient un paragraphe : les titres, sous-titres etc. sont considérés comme des paragraphes.

Les livres hybrides dans l'enseignement

Les livres hybrides peuvent combiner les avantages de la lecture sur cassette traditionnelle et de la lecture de texte électronique par synthèse vocale. Ils peuvent servir aussi bien à la lecture de loisirs qu'aux ouvrages d'enseignement. La navigation dans le texte se fait avec rapidité et précision et on bénéficie d'une voix claire et d'excellente qualité même en écoutant des textes très divers.

Il est souvent nécessaire, lorsqu'on entend un mot étranger ou inconnu, d'en vérifier l'orthographe au moyen de la synthèse vocale ou de la plage tactile, si l'on dispose aussi d'un afficheur braille connecté au PC.

L'un des principaux objectifs de la technique du livre hybride est de réduire l'écart entre les élèves voyants et déficients visuels. C'est à cela que sert l'élément "numéro de page noir" : pendant la consultation, les élèves peuvent rapidement atteindre la bonne page de la version en noir du manuel utilisé en classe.

L'objectif principal du projet Learn-ed était d'intégrer les étudiants handicapés dans l'enseignement supérieur à distance. Les techniques du livre hybride étaient censées constituer, dans le projet Learn-ed, la documentation d'enseignement hors connexion sur lequel s'appuierait la leçon en ligne. Cette technique devrait être testée au cours de prochaines études.

Le projet Learn-ed a été coordonné par Nick Hine de l'Université de Dundee. Le sigle signifie Accès à l'Enseignement et à l'Education à travers les Réseaux à Distance - des Possibilités pour les Handicapés. En plus du groupe hongrois, la Slovaquie et l'Autriche ont également participé au projet Copernic Learn-ed.

Le point commun entre les projets Learn-ed et Copernic était l'utilisation de la norme HTML pour charger les données, bien que Digibook utilise un procédé de pré-compilation afin d'optimiser le temps de recherche sur CD-ROM. Cela est nécessaire pour améliorer la vitesse de consultation du livre hybride pour les utilisateurs aveugles.

Conclusions

Le livre parlant numérisé structuré peut être considéré comme l'aspect le plus novateur du projet Digibook. Son utilité potentielle est apparue clairement au cours de l'évaluation avec des non-voyants.

L'intérêt manifesté par les organismes pour aveugles, comme les Unions des Aveugles hongroise et italienne, confirme cette conclusion.

Quelques problèmes ne sont pas encore résolus. Le premier concerne l'utilisation en pratique par un non-voyant qui n'utilise pas régulièrement un ordinateur. Un lecteur CD simplifié, équipé de commandes pour activer les différentes fonctions du programme de navigation, semble être la meilleure approche. Cela peut être réalisé dans un environnement classique ou sur un dispositif dédié.

La segmentation automatique du fichier vocal et la création d'un lecteur de livres spécial seront étudiées dans le cadre d'un projet commun de la MTA (l'Académie Hongroise des Sciences) et du CNR (le Conseil National Italien de la Recherche Scientifique), avec lesquels le LSTR et l'IROE travailleront pendant les trois années à venir.

Remerciements

Les auteurs tiennent à remercier les bureaux Copernic et Tide de l'Union Européenne, qui leur ont donné la possibilité de créer une nouvelle application pour les déficients visuels grâce au projet Digibook. Nous sommes également reconnaissants au Bureau National Hongrois du Développement Technique (OMFB) pour son soutien qui nous permet de poursuivre nos travaux, ainsi qu'à l'Académie Hongroise des Sciences et au Conseil Italien de la Recherche Scientifique pour toute leur aide.

Références

A. Arató, M. Barkaszi, L. Budai and T. Vaspöri, "Hybrid Books for the Blind - A new form of Talking Books", 5ème Conférence Internationale, ICCHP'96, 1996, Linz, Autriche, R. Oldenbourg Vienne Munich, 1, pp. 237-248.

"User Requirements for the Next Generation of Talking Books", (Projet de document pour consultation), par le groupe d'experts de l'Union Européenne des Aveugles (EBU) sur la nouvelle génération de livres parlants (EBU-TBEG).

J. Engelen et al.: "COPERNICUS NR 806 Final report", Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, April 1997.


[ Livre hybride ] [ English ]

[Actes]